Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Better Classroom Discussions Through Choice and a Little Bit of Chaos

Photo by USAG Livorno PAO via Flickr, CC BY 2.0
Some of us have been there. You have a room full of 30+ students, and you wonder how it is possible that so many kids or teenagers could actually be that quiet. Many avert their eyes, thinking that if they don’t make eye contact, they can achieve the superpower of invisibility. Then, there are those five students who confidently and regularly raise their hands, waiting to be called on to answer the question that has been posed by the teacher. Regardless of the topic, regardless of the questions, it is usually the same five hands that sprout up each time.
How can we improve our practice so that more engagement occurs for all students and not just the confident few? A successful discussion is typically dependent on two factors: the topic and the level of participation. How can we choose subjects for discussion that interest and yet educate students? How can we run our discussions so that all students have a voice?
As an English Language Arts teacher, literacy is at the core of my curriculum. This is not new to our content area. For years, the traditional genres we teach include short stories, poetry, and novels. However, in this world where news can literally be transmitted the minute we click the share button, we need to expand the breadth of what our students are reading. Our world is increasingly digital, and it’s time we add that to our warehouse of genres. This is why I regularly supplement my students’ readings with online sources, like articles from KQED’s The Lowdown. The Lowdown provides current and educational topics that are fantastic for incorporating informational text into the classroom. What better way to meet this requirement in the Common Core State Standards than to introduce stories that also resonant with our students?
The Challenge
Whole class discussions come with limitations. This is why, over many years of teaching, I’ve tried different approaches to encourage meaningful dialogue among students. To me, a conversation isn’t meaningful if only 15 to 20% of the class is talking during the period. This is why I think the following strategies are great alternatives to the traditional approach of whole class discussions.
Student Choice
Ever mindful that students love choice, I let my students choose what they wish to read and discuss each week. On Mondays, the first task of the day is to browse the topics offered on The Lowdown to see which topics interest them. Next, I ask for a volunteer to facilitate the decision-making process. This person takes up to five suggestions before polling the class. Students are allowed to vote as many times as they want, and the article that receives the most votes is the one that we read that week.
Socratic Seminars with a Twist
Socratic Seminars are formal, small group discussions that explore open-ended, critical-thinking questions based upon an assigned text. Before the seminar, students are given a set of questions that will be discussed. They prepare for the talk by taking notes or annotating the text. There are some excellent online resources that support teachers in using Socratic Seminars like this video from the Teaching Channel or the National Paideia Center, which offers a helpful overview of how to use this method in the classroom.
However, in my classroom, I feel it’s more empowering to have my students ask and answer their own questions. Students are encouraged to jot down questions during and after reading a text. Then, they submit their best question and the class votes on the ones they want to explore. Sometimes I tweak their submissions a little to ensure that the questions have the substance needed for a Socratic Seminar.
Due to class size, most teachers divide their students into two groups: an inner circle and an outer circle. The participants in the seminar sit in the inner circle, while the students in the outer circle take on the role of observers and coaches. However, in a secondary California classroom where we easily have more than 30 students, a socratic seminar with 15+ participants is still too large. Instead, I break my class into three groups: participants, coaches, and notetakers. The notetakers are each assigned to follow the contributions of one member of the inner circle and documents the conversation during the discussion on a shared Google Doc. I find that these smaller groups work best with an advanced class where students are usually competing for an opportunity to speak.
Table Talks
Even though Socratic Seminars are great for cultivating public speaking skills, I also want to create an environment where the engagement and participation in my class is high and constant. To do this, I created a method I coined Table Talks. Like I mentioned previously, I prefer to have my class submit and choose their own questions. Once the voting has ended, the top nine questions are shared, and students choose three that they want to explore. They prepare for the Table Talk the day before by choosing a position, gathering evidence, and writing a rationale. On the day of the Table Talk, students join the table that corresponds to the question they have chosen. This is repeated three times during the period. With multiple conversations occurring simultaneously, it may feel a little chaotic, but I love the animated discussions that arise. It also gets my students moving, and it gives them the opportunity to hear different perspectives.
Online Discussion Threads
If you have access to technology, online discussions are a wonderful way to ensure that every student’s voice is heard. Many learning management systems (LMS) include a discussion tool in their product, and the one I use is Schoology. With their analytics tool, I can quickly see who participated and how frequently they contributed to the conversation. When using a discussion tool, students have the opportunity to process their thoughts before sharing them. This allows for more thoughtful discourse and the occasion to practice their writing skills. Sometimes the opening question is posed by me, and sometimes I have all my students post one question of their own. To encourage active engagement and follow-up, I institute a “3 Post Rule.” Each student must contribute an original post, respond to another peer’s original post, and respond to someone’s reply.
In my classroom, I try to utilize a variety of strategies to give my students choice and to increase engagement. My goal is to foster a collaborative environment where all participants can feel they are a part of a larger conversation.

Originally published on KQED's "In the Classroom" blog. Reproduced courtesy of KQED.

Saturday, January 9, 2016

10 Ways to Use Google Hangouts to Transform Learning

My class "hanging out" with Education Secretary Duncan on Google Hangouts
In our world today, we can stay connected in unprecedented ways. Why just call or text when you can “see” someone who is hundreds or thousands of miles away? Even President Obama used Google Hangouts in 2013 during his fireside chat with the country. If you haven’t used Hangouts before, it’s time to examine the possibilities.

In education, using Hangouts is a great way to connect and collaborate with other educators without giving out your phone number. It’s a powerful tool for making connections, working collaboratively, and introducing the world to your students. Many educators have embraced Hangouts to enrich both their students’ learning experiences and their own professional development. Below are some ways educators are using Hangouts to step up the learning.

Make Student Connections
You can connect students with their peers from around the country, or even from abroad if time zone differences permit. Below are some ideas on how teachers are using this fabulous video calling tool in their classrooms.
  1. Book Talks: Classes that are reading the same book or similar genres can discuss novels together and make book recommendations to one another.
  2. Mystery Hangouts: In this activity, two classrooms video chat with each other but do not reveal their individual locations. Before meeting online, both classes research facts about their own state and create clues about their location. Then, each class takes turns asking “Yes” or “No” type questions in a race to solve the mystery. More details on how to get started could be found on my blog here. To find classes to connect with yours, visit the Mystery Location Calls Google+ Community or reach out to members of the Connected Classrooms Workshop Google+ Community.
  3. Presentations: Give students an authentic audience. They can present their projects to other classes or adults. Recruit parents, community members, or career professionals to provide a captive audience for your students.
  4. Project Collaboration: Classes that are studying similar themes or topics can collaborate on a project together in a way never possible before.

Bring in the Experts...For Free!
  1. Guest Speakers: Inviting a speaker into the classroom has never been easier...or cheaper. Video calling enables anyone from around the world to “visit” a school. Also, as an added plus, Google Hangouts has the ability to handle up to ten people in a video call at once and up to fifteen using a Google Apps account. This means that there’s never a dull moment or radio silence during the call. Last year, my classes were able to participate in two amazing Hangouts on Air. We got to speak with Nobel Peace Laureate Leymah Gbowee and Education Secretary Duncan.
  2. Virtual Field Trips: With video calling technology becoming more popular, many companies are now offering virtual field trips via Hangouts on Air, which is a public Google Hangout that broadcasts a live recording of the event. After the video call ends, it is archived on the host’s YouTube channel for anyone to view again later. Here are a few companies that are offering or (have recently offered) virtual field trips that could bring that out of classroom experience to your students: Learn Around the World, Exploring by the Seat of Your Pants, and SeaTrek.TV. Occasionally, announcements of virtual field trips from various members of the Connected Classrooms Workshop Google+ Community will be posted.

Learn and Collaborate from Anywhere
  1. Virtual Classes: One year, we had one student at my middle school who progressed so quickly through his math studies that he was ready for Algebra II. Unfortunately, we didn’t offer this course on our campus, but we did at another school in our district. Thanks to Google Hangouts, this student didn’t have to transfer schools and, instead, he attended math class virtually and received all his instruction online.
  2. Office Hours: Sometimes students need more one-on-one attention or perhaps they were absent and need to catch up on what they missed. Teachers can schedule Hangouts to hold virtual office hours to provide the assistance students need.
  3. Professional Collaborations: With everyone just a video call away, educators can work on projects and share ideas with anyone around the world. Many educators have forged powerful connections (called PLNs) via social media platforms like Twitter and Google+, and they’re using Google Hangouts to learn together or to plan professional development events for educators like Edcamps and PLAYDATEs.
  4. New Twist to Webinars: More and more, companies are turning to Hangouts on Air to host their webinars. It gives educators a choice: watch the webinar live and participate in a “Question & Answer” session with the presenter or watch it later at one’s convenience. A great example of this is the webinar series from Imagine Easy Solutions.

The possibilities of using Hangouts in education are endless. How will you transform your learning and the learning of your students?

Abbreviated version of this post was originally published on WeAreTeachers.

Thursday, July 30, 2015

Creating an Environment That Discourages Plagiarism


Teacher working with students by Intel Free Press / CC BY 2.0
Why do students plagiarize? Most of the time it's probably due to two reasons: they don't know how to properly cite their sources or they don't know what to write.

In my English Language Arts class, my students are constantly writing. It may be blog posts, essays, or speeches. In previous years I've never had access to Turnitin to check for plagiarism, and even though my district has decided to subscribe to this service next semester, I don't plan to change my approach to teaching writing. This is because I prefer to be proactive, rather than reactive. So how do I know that my students are truly the authors of the work they call their own?

First, my students start and complete most of their writing in class. When given time to write, there is less inclination to cheat.

Second, I scaffold them throughout the writing process. If it's an essay, we brainstorm the ideas in class, and we crowdsource the evidence they need to support their opinions. I might have students post their thesis statements on Schoology's discussion platform. Then, my students agree or disagree (respectfully, of course) by either supporting or refuting the posted thesis statement with evidence from the text. This natural dialogue helps them practice their arguments before they even start to plan the essay.

Third, my students brainstorm their essay on a mindmap. As they work, I confer with each one of them and discuss where they are going with their ideas. We use Google Slides to map out their essay, and though I could simply insert comments, I prefer to talk to them face-to-face. They appreciate the personalized attention, and I always get an appreciative "thank you" at the end of our conversations. If I run out of time in class, then I will resort to written comments.

Next, students write their essays on a Google Doc, using the information from their mindmaps. As they write, I set up opportunities for students to give each other feedback. I instruct them on which specific criteria to focus on and how to give each other formative feedback. As they work on this, I also monitor their essays, jumping in as necessary to provide even more feedback.

After this process, students revise their essays based on comments they've received. When this draft is finished, I give them a self-assessment to complete. Then, they have the opportunity to revise their essay once more before turning it in. For each step of their writing process, I provide scaffolds and feedback for their writing.

After all the planning, drafting, and conferring in class, there is no need to plagiarize. From this point on, it'll take more work for students to look for someone else's work to copy.

If we equip our students with the skills they need, give them the time to write, provide them with our guidance, and cultivate the support of their peers, there is less incentive to plagiarize. However, I didn't take this approach to teaching writing because of plagiarism. I use this method because I believe in scaffolding and giving my students the tools they need to succeed. The decline of plagiarism is just a byproduct.


Thursday, May 7, 2015

Are You Teaching Your Students to be Unintentional Plagiarists?

"Gasp" by Halimae / CC BY 3.0

Sometimes plagiarism is intentional. Sometimes it's not. But neither are acceptable. 

During the year, my students spend a good deal of time learning to cite evidence and identifying their sources when writing essays or research-based speeches. However, do students consider what is plagiarism and what is not when creating other types of content? Do they understand that when they reuse someone else's creative work (images, videos, etc.) without permission that they may be plagiarizing someone else's work and violating copyright laws? Do teachers know this?

How about when students blog, and they provide facts they read from somewhere? Guilty! My students often recount statistics about their favorite athletes when blogging about them, and they often neglect to identify their source of information.

This is where my students forget that they are, indeed, plagiarizing because they fail to give credit where credit is due. Perhaps this is because they don't associate blogging with academic writing (though they are required to follow the rules of grammar and mechanics). 

I think some teachers are guilty of the same mistake. When we are looking to spice up our lessons, sometimes we search for ideas on the Internet. Sometimes we come across a great idea and a lesson is born. But how many are actually acknowledging that their lessons originated from someone else's hard work? Sure, ideas are not copyright protected, and we're not breaking any laws. However, plagiarism is the act of appropriating another person's idea without credit attribution. This may not fall under the jurisdiction of the law, but it does under the court of ethics.

In my "9 C's of Digital Literacy," I pointed out that we should be teaching about character when teaching digital literacy. I believe that we should be encouraging our students to be advocates of ethical practices even if not legally required.

So now I make it a point to include either of the following sentences on my assignments if the situation applies: "This lesson was inspired by _____" or "This lesson idea originated from ______" with a link to this person's work.

If we want to teach our students to do the right thing, shouldn't we be modeling these behaviors as well? It takes so little effort to acknowledge another person for his or her hard work. Isn't it time we started? Sometimes the best lessons are the ones we don't explicitly teach, and many times those are the ones that leave the biggest impact on our students.



Saturday, April 25, 2015

5 Things We Have to Stop Pretending

"Heiwa Elementary School" by ajari / CC BY 2.0
What should we stop pretending is good in education?

I was first asked this question by +Nancy Minicozzi when she wrote her "5 Things We Have to Stop Pretending." In her blog post, she challenged me and four other educators to come up with our own five things to change in education. Then, after publishing our post, we must pass the challenge to five other educators.

So how can we #MakeSchoolDifferent? Here are five beliefs I think we should change:
  1. Our digital natives are digitally proficient.
  2. Multiple choice tests and quizzes are effective assessment tools.
  3. A quiet audience is a captivated audience.
  4. We should teach our content areas in isolation and not recognize the importance of cross-curricular connections.
  5. To create an academically rigorous class, teachers need to assign more work, more tests, and more homework.
This next part isn't necessary or a part of the challenge, but I wanted to provide responses to the above five points.
  1. Our digital natives are very adept at using technology for social networking and gaming, but we need to give them opportunities to expand on their skills by letting them practice what I perceive to be the "9 C's of Digital Literacy."
  2. In the real world, we don't take multiple choice tests to demonstrate our skills. We are asked to create products and provide services, neither of which has any resemblance to the summative assessments most students are asked to complete in schools.
  3. Just because students look like they are listening during a lecture, it doesn't mean they are actually learning. Instead, give students the opportunity to practice, explore, and showcase their understanding of a lesson with collaborative work, hands-on learning, and eportfolios. Talk less and have students do more. 
  4. The world is interconnected in so many ways. It's time we showed students the connections.
  5. Learning doesn't have to be hard for it to be valid. Great teachers scaffold their students so that students can successfully meet their learning goals. Excellent educators make difficult-to-learn concepts easy to understand.
Now I pass the challenge to five of my good friends: +Liz Castillo+JR Ginex-Orinion+Jeanne Reed+Lisa Nowakowski, and +Jo-Ann Fox. I look forward to hearing from them and others who come across our blogs. Please use the hashtag #MakeSchoolDifferent to continue the conversation.

Sunday, April 19, 2015

Don't Plagiarize! Just Cite It!

Image by Alice Chen / CC BY 4.0
It's so easy to avoid plagiarize, and yet many students, and even adults, don't realize this. By definition, plagiarism means to take information (words, concepts, creations, etc.) from another person and present it as your own.  You can easily avoid plagiarism by simply citing the source of the information.

Here's a great video created by EasyBib that explains how to cite work so that you don't become a plagiarist. Please share this with your students so that they can be role models for others.




In-text Citations from EasyBib on Vimeo.

Also check out this great resource plagiarism.org to learn more about this topic.

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Do You Really Have the Right to Use That?

"Copyright Symbol" by Mike Seyfang / CC BY 2.0
Most students, and even educators, don’t think twice about copying and redistributing Web content, not realizing that they may be in violation of copyright laws. As of March 1, 1989 all creations (text, images, videos, etc.), automatically receive this protection even if the creator never formally files for copyright status.

In this post, I’ve put together a quick guide to help educators better understand this concept and to help them teach students the need to respect the work of others.

Quick Guide to Copyright, Fair Use & Public Domain

Copyright
  • Only expressions of ideas are copyright protected. (However, appropriating someone else's idea is plagiarism.)
  • As of March 1, 1989, all work is copyright protected the moment it is created.
  • Copyright registration is not required to copyright a creator’s work. (It is, however, helpful in ligation cases to establish proof of copyright.)


What fair use usually allows (however, there are exceptions)
  • Criticism and comments
  • News reporting
  • Research and scholarship
  • Nonprofit educational uses
  • Parody
  • Non-commercial uses

Does it qualify under Fair Use?
It depends on how you use the work. Each case is unique, and there is no guarantee that the courts will rule in your favor. These are the questions usually considered in a court of law when determining fair use.
  • Is this an entirely new creation?
  • What is the purpose of using this work?
  • Will you be competing with the creator of the original work?
  • How much of the original work are you using? (You can only reproduce a small portion of the work.)
  • What quality and essence of the original work are you using? (There is no magic percentage that protects you under Fair Use. If it is the “heart and soul” of the work, even reproducing a minute amount of the work could be considered a violation of copyright laws.)

How to Determine If a Work Is in the Public Domain (United States Only)
The table below is created from information published by Stanford University Libraries’ “Welcome to the Public Domain.”
Publication
In the Public Domain
Work published before 1923
Yes
Work published between 1923 and 1963
Work has copyright status for the first 28 year, but has to be renewed to retain copyright status
Work published between 1993 and February 28, 1989
If the work has no copyright notice and “the law has not made an exception for its omission, then the work is the public domain.”
Work created by the government
Yes


Sources



This guide cannot be substituted for legal advice and should not be construed as such. The information contained herein is based on the works cited above.